Structure, Bonding and the Mole
- Atomic structure in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, Isotopes and the use of the mass spectrometer. Relative Atomic Mass. The electron configuration of atoms, quantization of energies, electron spin and “electrons in boxes”, wave nature of the electron, shapes of s & p orbitals.
- Conductivities of solutions of molecular and ionic compounds, electron configuration and relative sizes of simple atoms, normal and dative covalent bonds, electron diagrams of common molecules, polar covalency and Pauling’s electronegativity scale, electronegativity difference and intermediate types of bonds, shapes of molecules, the polarity of molecules, metallic bonding.
- The relationship between boiling point and intermolecular forces, Van-der-Waal’s forces, dipole-dipole attraction, hydrogen bonds. The relationship between boiling point and solubility in water and a non-polar solvent. Examples of metallic, ionic, molecular and giant molecular crystals. The relationship between crystal structure and melting point.
- Calculations of the mole and Avogadro constant, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae, reacting masses and percentage yield, the molar volume of gases.
Method of assessment: Practical 20%, Examination 80%