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### Physics

DC Electricity

• Potential and potential difference
• Electrostatics
• Lighting
• Charge, circuits and current
• Kirchoff’s laws
• Resistance, Ohm’s law, resistivity, I=nAvq

AC Electricity and Electronics

• Introduction to the theory of alternating currents.
• Kirchhoff’s laws revisited
• Overview of an AC generator
• Frequency and periodicity
• Sinusoidal voltages and currents
• Angular frequency
• Phase angle and phase difference
• Average value of a sine wave
• The effective value of a sine wave
• Resistance, inductance and capacitance in a.c. circuits
• The pure resistive circuit
• The pure inductive circuit.
• Inductive reactance
• Inductive susceptance
• The pure capacitive circuit.
• Capacitive reactance
• Capacitive susceptance
• Series and parallel AC circuits
• Principles of the transformer
• Derivation of V1/V2 = N1/N2
• Rectification: Half wave & full wave

Operational Amplifiers

• Examples of integrated circuits
• Difference amplifiers
• Large Open-loop gain
• Large input resistance circuits
• Power supply configuration
• Schematics
• Inverting and non-inverting input designs
• Inverting amplifiers
• Non-inverting amplifier
• Unity gain amplifier
• Saturated output
• Definition of gain and the principles of negative feedback
• Instability and frequency response
• Comparator circuits
• Timer applications
• Offset control.
• Use of relays.

• Plum pudding model
• Evidence for subatomic particles
• Properties of alpha and beta radiation
• The nature of radioactive decay
• Half-life and the decay constant
• Rutherford’s alpha scattering experiment
• The nucleus
• Comparison of protons and neutrons
• Evidence for quark structure
• Definition of leptons and baryons
• Antiparticles
• Neutrinos
• Strange and heavy particles
• The search for new particles
• Models for the electron
• Energy transitions, E=hf
• Subatomic transitions
• The use of baryon and lepton numbers
• Nuclear power, cases for and against
• The Chernobyl incident

Materials

• Solids, Liquids and Gases
• Elasticity: Hooke’s Law, Stress, Strain and Young’s Modulus.

Mechanics

• Linear motion with constant acceleration
• Scalar and Vector quantities
• Projectile Motion
• Conservation of Linear Momentum
• Work, Energy, Power and Efficiency
• Use of Dimensions
• Principle of Moments
• Centre of Mass
• Equilibrium

Mechanics 2

• Dynamics
• Circular motion, satellites, tides
• Angular Momentum
• Oscillation and waves, SHM
• Diffraction
• Fields: gravitational, electric and magnetic

Thermal Physics

• Heat and temperature
• Kinetic theory
• Basic thermodynamics.

Method of Assessment: End of unit written exam